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Mathematics to know how to be fashionable

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Mathematics to know how to be fashionable

An algorithmic rule, developed by IRI researchers, determines whether or not or not a user is wearing fashion and additionally offers recommendation in order that they will improve their vogue. Dressing well may be a matter of arithmetic.

Science recently had to enter one amongst the foremost infective agent debates of recent times: dictate the colour of a dress. currently maths goes to inform U.S.A. whether or not or not we have a tendency to dress fashionably. Algebra, arithmetic, pure mathematics, calculus or analytics area unit gift in our daily lives, though we have a tendency to area unit usually responsive to it. arithmetic helps U.S.A. order the globe and know it higher. Even once it involves fashion, a locality that may appear trivial to science nevertheless includes a vast impact on our society. Because, is there anyone United Nations agency doesn’t wish to decorate well and be fashionable? additionally, from the economic purpose of read, it’s a growing sector: in keeping with knowledge printed in Forbes Magazine in 2013, web sales of covering can reach 370,000 million greenbacks within the u.  s. and 191,000 million euros in Europe in 2017.

In Spain, the web has step by step gained importance as a marketing for fashion firms associate degreed represents an progressively vital proportion of total sales. in keeping with the net Fashion Indicator , supported knowledge from Kantar Worldpanel, web sales of covering, footwear, accessories and residential textiles reached two.6% of the full turnover of the arena in Apr 2015 , with a growth of twenty sixth within the variety of patrons in relevancy an equivalent amount of the previous year.

Furthermore, laptop Vision researchers have began to have an interest within the subject thanks to the nice application that may be derived from it. the most focus has been inferring covering from pictures, that has created it potential to develop mobile applications like Mencanta or Dresscovery that establish a photographed garment or accent (bag, shoes) that the user might have seen on the road . And not solely will it give the model and whole however, in several cases, the app itself permits you to shop for them directly on-line.

But, what if that garment that somebody insists on sporting seems that it doesn’t build them look modern and on high of that it doesn’t favor them either? this can be wherever arithmetic and massive knowledge inherit play : researchers from the Institute of AI and Industrial information processing (IRI), a joint center of the upper Council for research (CSIC) and therefore the tech University of Catalonia (UPC), have developed a mathematical model that’s ready to assess whether or not or not an individual is wearing fashion and, what is more, advise them. The creators of this algorithmic rule area unit the researchers King of Great Britain Simo-Serra and Francesc Moreno-Noguer from the IRI and Sanja Fidler and Raquel Urtasun, from the University of provincial capital, United Nations agency created their work glorious .Neuroaesthetics in Fashion: Modeling the Perception of Fashionability ‘ at the foremost necessary laptop Vision conference within the world, control last Gregorian calendar month in state capital.

The objective of his work was to create a mathematical model that might perceive the style conception. That is, perceive what makes a definite approach of dressing modern or not. it absolutely was concerning having the ability to dictate however ‘fashionable’ (or modern , in English) an individual dresses in a very sure photograph.It is not a few subjective perception or associate degree opinion: being modern is set by the garments that an individual wears however additionally by an oversized variety of alternative factors like the scene during which it’s framed, however the image was taken, age , however it seems within the photo… the garments somebody is sporting isn’t the right indicator to recognise whether or not or not they dress in fashion, since alternative aspects sometimes have to be compelled to be taken into consideration, like whether or not those items of covering align with the fashion and lookof that person, with their physical characteristics and even their temperament. The algorithmic rule developed by this team of researchers is capable of learning fashion trends through laptop vision and pattern recognition. However, it doesn’t stop there however goes additional, changing into a private consultant and creating recommendations on a way to dress.

From a photograph of a geolocated person and in a very sure scene, completely different data is extracted to make a probabilistic model. The algorithmic rule marks the possibilities that the user has of being wearing fashion or being ‘fashionable’ with a selected covering and offers it a price, a number. it’s a model with a capability to be told, United Nations agency learns from examples. The algorithmic rule establishes the relationships between these variables, that is, the relationships between the person and therefore the ‘outfit’ or covering, the link between the ‘outfit’ and therefore the scene, and therefore the relationship between the scene and therefore the person. and every one this associated with ‘fashionability’. From the information it extracts, it’s ready to outline what fashion is worn and advise you to boost your style”, explains Francesc Moreno-Noguer, research worker at the Institute of AI and Industrial information processing (IRI).

And wherever will the data that feeds that algorithmic program return from? Well, from the net and social networks, that is wherever fashion specialists square measure uploading photos of their ‘outfits’ or sets . consistent with the VI Social Networks Study of IAB Kingdom of Spain , the favourite activity of thirty ninth of web users on social networks is to publish content.

Specifically, researchers from IRI and also the University of Toronto have used Chictopia, a social network specializing in fashion and trends, to make a info with quite a hundred and forty four,000 pictures of various designs, shared by users and with comments related to them. every outfit. during a post printed on this social network, a user uploads from one to 6 photos carrying a replacement outfit, showing it from completely different angles and thoroughly. They additionally sometimes describe the garment and even offer different data like geographical location, a crucial issue once determinant whether or not or not it’s modern. it’s not constant to be modern in Kingdom of Spain or Europe because it is in China or Japan. The ‘likes’ and also the variety of followers that people who share their appearance haveThese square measure knowledge that offer a thought of the success of the user. However, there’s no ‘I do not like’ possibility, nor square measure the amount of views provided, that display a knowledge challenge for the researchers to figure from a learning perspective. to make this algorithmic program, the scientists combined a neural network with a probabilistic prediction model of the Conditional Random Field sort , that takes into consideration many factors, like the kind of half, the user category or the surroundings within the image. , geographical location or keywords extracted from user comments and data like origin, the ‘likes’ obtained or the amount of followers.

The system isn’t solely capable of learning and predicting whether or not a user is trendy or not, however may offer recommendation in order that they will improve their vogue.That person is carrying jeans however would still look higher during a suit. that’s why, not like different similar applications that square measure supported similarity models, this algorithmic program seeks to maximise the idea of being modern and doesn’t focus solely on providing garments that square measure visually kind of like those who the user is already carrying. “The objective is to seem for garments that facilitate to be modern and not those who square measure visually kind of like those who the user is carrying as a result of if his style is dangerous with the similarity recommendation system, he can ne’er be modern. This algorithmic program permits the user to boost her look to be additional in line with fashion trends supported the applied math knowledge extracted from the analysis of information from the images, ”says King of England Simo-Serra, a investigator at the Institute of AI and Industrial information processing (IRI). ).

And additionally to advising to be modern, the system additionally learns from the information entered due to computing . Through pc vision and pattern recognition, contrasted with the “likes” that consumer goods sets receive, he’s ready to study fashion trends. throughout the work, fashion trends have additionally been analyzed within the last six years of posts within the analyzed social network, that permits U.S.A. to own a vision of trends.

With enough data, you would possibly even be ready to predict what the trends are for successive season. For fashion homes it may become a good ally once making future collections: having this data regarding what’s going to be in fashion to be ready to adapt their new styles supported the recognition of garment sorts in several social and age groups” , indicates Moreno-Noguer. This created algorithmic program would have a clearly business application. “It would be a competitive advantage for fashion companies: not solely having the ability to suggest what’s in fashion however additionally doing it inside their own catalogue”.

However, one amongst this limitations of the model is that ninety fifth of the photographs collected from Chictopia square measure of feminine ‘outfits’, thus additionally to increasing the amount of the info -currently it already reaches 1,000,000 photographs- the challenge passes to balance it which it are often applied to the male audience. It appears that additional men square measure required posting their ‘outfits’ on the net.

As for the longer term of the applying, work is being done in order that it will type a higher model of the user and, therefore, create far more specific recommendations . “The evolution are that you just will establish and learn from the information you’ve got and even teach regarding fashion. To answer queries like: why are a few things fashionable? For what quite audience?”, advances Simo-Serra.

For this team of researchers, this is often a crucial opening in having the ability to create additional advanced and powerful models that square measure capable of understanding fashion, trends and users along. For this reason, each the info and also the code are public, in order that different researchers will cash in of them and address the challenges.

On the opposite hand, this mathematical model may open up several potentialities by taking advantage of the large quantity of digital knowledge that surrounds U.S.A., with recommendations in different sectors. on the far side the globe of fashion.

  

 

 

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The 16 Best Foundations for Dry Skin, According to Dermatologists

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The 16 Best Foundations for Dry Skin, According to Dermatologists

Foundation is a makeup staple but some can leave your skin feeling rough and dry, which is especially difficult for those with dry skin. The best foundations for dry skin are infused with some skin-care ingredients that can help add moisture to your skin while providing coverage. SELF spoke with dermatologists for tips on how to find top-notch foundations for dry skin.

“Skin care is the most important part of helping dry skin on the face, but there are many foundations now that have moisturizing ingredients,” says Dr. Sandy Skotnicki, board-certified dermatologist and author of Beyond Soap. “Typically, ingredients that are emollient like ceramides, other lipids, and fatty acids, as well as humectants like glycerin and hyaluronic acid, are great moisturizing ingredients for foundations.”

What ingredients to avoid in a foundation for dry skin? 

Aside from finding the right foundation, you’ll want to take a look at the ingredient list on the packaging. For those with dry skin, there are some ingredients commonly found in foundations that you’ll want to steer clear from. 

“Avoid ingredients that are potentially drying or irritating like clay, salicylic acid or other hydroxy acids, or retinol,” says Dr. Hadley King, a board-certified dermatologist in New York City who specializes in medical and cosmetic dermatology. King suggests avoiding mattifying formulations and opting for cream or lotion formulations, which are typically more dewy and moisturizing than powder ones.

Below are 16 of the best foundations for dry skin recommended by dermatologists that you may want to add to your makeup routine. You can pick up top-rated foundation brands like Neutrogena, Make Up Forever, Bare Minerals, and more from Amazon, Sephora, and Ulta.

All products featured on SELF are independently selected by our editors. However, when you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.

  • skin tint in glass bottle
    Neutrogena1Neutrogena Hydro Boost Hydrating TintThe following four foundations are favorites of Dr. Skotnicki for their moisturizing properties. This foundation tint recommended by Dr. Skotnicki hydrates with its hyaluronic acid formulation and offers all-day coverage. Over time, your skin will look and feel more supple, plump, and moisturized while remaining a staple of your makeup routine each day. $17 $14 AT NEUTROGENA$13 AT TARGET
  • Giorgio Armani Beauty Luminous Silk Foundation on white background
    Sephora2Giorgio Armani Beauty Luminous Silk FoundationDr. Skotnicki is a fan of this cult-favorite foundation that is buildable and creates a luminous, glowy finish. It’s a medium coverage foundation but is easily buildable for a more full coverage look, depending on your preference.$65 AT SEPHORA$65 AT NORDSTROM

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  • bottle of foundation
    No73No7 Lift & Luminate Triple Action Serum Foundation SPF 15Add this serum foundation recommended by Dr. Skotnicki to your cart and bask in the lightweight formula designed to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and achieve firmer and even-looking skin. Sometimes those with dry skin can experience uneven skin texture and this foundation helps with the appearance, making it look soft and smooth. $16 AT TARGET$16 AT NO7$16 $10 AT WALGREENS
  • Make Up For Ever HD Skin Undetectable Longwear Foundation on white background
    Sephora4Make Up For Ever HD Skin Undetectable Longwear FoundationWith its new formula, this Make Up For Ever foundation recommended by Dr. Skotnicki is made to look like your natural skin (under any kind of lighting) while offering a medium to full coverage finish. The best part? No need to worry about your face looking cakey as this foundation moves with your skin and doesn’t dry it out. $43 AT MAKE UP FOR EVER$43 AT SEPHORA
  • skin tint in white packaging
    Nordstrom5Ilia Super Serum Skin Tint SPF 40 “This product is gentle, fragrance-free, and non-comedogenic,” Dr. Farber says. “It has niacinamide, squalane, and allantoin to soothe the skin.” With such great ingredients, Ilia is also a great foundation pick for those with oily skin.$48 AT SEPHORA$48 AT NORDSTROM

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    Alastin Skincare6Alastin Skincare Hydratint Pro Mineral SPF 36For a more natural-looking finish, opt for a skin tint like this water-resistant and fragrance-free one from Alastin. “It’s an all-mineral formulation that’s lightweight and hydrating,” Dr. King says. “It contains antioxidants that help protect the skin from pollution, I.R. rays, and blue light, and there’s no white residue.”$60 AT ALASTIN SKINCARE$60 AT SKINBEAUTIFUL RX
  • foundation in tube
    Dermstore7Revision Skincare Intellishade Matte SPF 45When it comes to the best foundation for dry skin moisture is key, and that’s the main goal of this tinted moisturizer. “It’s 100% mineral with zinc oxide and titanium dioxide and it has a very nice light texture with sheer coverage,” Dr. King says. “You can apply more of the product or more layers if you desire more coverage so it’s nice to have that flexibility. Plus it’s non-irritating and moisturizing for sensitive or dry skin and non-comedogenic for acne-prone skin.$75 $64 AT TARGET$80 AT DERMSTORE
  • cc cream in tube
    Ulta8It Cosmetics CC+ Cream SPF 50+Dr. Michele Farber of Schweiger Dermatology Group in Philadelphia can’t say enough good things when it comes to this natural full coverage foundation. “It has dimethicone and hyaluronic acid to hydrate,” she says. “Added bonuses are that it comes in a wide variety of shades to match nearly any skin tone, it provides good coverage, and has sunscreen.”$44 AT ULTA$44 AT SEPHORA

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    Sephora9Bareminerals Complexion Rescue Tinted Moisturizer with Hyaluronic Acid SPF 30In the market for a light coverage foundation? This vegan gel cream combines the best of skin care and foundation together for a light coverage look that leaves skin hydrated and moisturized. “This foundation is fantastic as it is mineral-based, which is easier on sensitive skin, and has hyaluronic acid and squalane to hydrate. The SPF 30 is also a plus,” Dr. Farber says. $37 AT SEPHORA$33 AT TARGET
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    Net-A-Porter10Pat Mcgrath Labs Skin Fetish: Sublime Perfection Foundation“A liquid formula that is great for mature skin types,” says Dr. Paviol, board-certified dermatologist at Paviol Dermatology. “It’s made with diamond-core powder for some real ‘glow from within’ radiance.”
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8 Dramatic Eye Makeup Looks for Bold Eyes

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8 Dramatic Eye Makeup Looks for Bold Eyes

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #1: METALLIC RAINBOW EYE SHADOW

Rainbow eye makeup is an undeniably fun (and colorful!) makeup trend we can totally get behind. Of course, using all the colors from the rainbow in your eye makeup look is anything but subtle. If you’re ready to step outside your comfort zone, follow the steps below to create a metallic rainbow eye makeup look that’s guaranteed to turn heads!

Step #1: Set the lines. Gently place a bit of adhesive tape in a diagonal fashion along the outer corner of your eye, going up toward your temples. This will serve as a guide and is a foolproof method for ending up with precise, defined lines when your look is complete.

Step #2: Create your base. Start by coating your lids in a bright, metallic purple hue.

Step #3: Color your crease. Pop a hot pink eye shadow into your crease. Use a fluffy brush to blend the color up and outward (along your tape) toward your temples. Then, deepen the look by applying a dark, metallic purple shade to the outer “V” of your eye, extending outward.

Step #4: Highlight with copper. You may be used to highlighting your inner corner with white or nude eye shadow, but for this dramatic eye makeup look, you’ll be using a metallic copper shadow to do so. Apply the L’Oréal Paris Infallible Crushed Foils Metallic Eye Shadow in Diamond Dust to your inner corners, then drag the same shadow along your lower lash line.

Step #5: Get green with envy. Apply a metallic green eye shadow over the copper you just applied on your lower lash line, focusing the color on the outer two thirds.

Step #6: Wing it. Use the L’Oréal Paris Voluminous Lash Paradise Liquid Eyeliner in Black to line your eyes and create your sharpest wing.

Step #7: Add some blue. We’re not done yet! Glide a metallic blue pencil eyeliner over your black liner, stopping when you reach the outer corner of your eye, so the wing is still black. Then use the same metallic blue pencil eyeliner to line your waterline.

Step #8: Coat your lashes. Complete your dramatic eye makeup look with a few coats of the L’Oréal Paris Unlimited Lash Lifting and Lengthening Washable Mascara in Blackest Black. All done!

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #2: ROCKER MAKEUP

Dramatic eye makeup also doubles as edgy eye makeup, as far as we’re concerned. And what’s edgier than a rocker makeup look? Embrace the ‘80s resurgence and follow the steps in our article, How to Get a Rocker Makeup Look, for a dramatic, bold black eye makeup look with face and lip makeup to match.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #3: GLITTER EYESHADOW

Lover of all that glitters? So are we! Glitter eyeshadow is one of the hottest eye makeup trends at the moment, not to mention it totally brings the drama. Here are 7 Glitter Eyeshadow and Eye Makeup Ideas to try.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #4: NEGATIVE SPACE CUT CREASE

cut crease has become a cult classic when it comes to dramatic makeup looks. There’s just something about this sleek eye makeup technique that instantly draws the eye. What’s more, a negative space cut crease offers an even more dramatic, modern twist on the look. Learn how to create one in our article, How to Create a Negative Space Cut Crease.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #5: ORANGE EYE SHADOW

Orange you glad orange eyeshadow is trending? We sure are! If you want an easy dramatic eye makeup look to try, swipe an orange hue onto your lids.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #6: WINGED EYELINER

Sometimes, sleek and simple offers more drama than an intricate eye makeup look. That’s just the case with winged eyeliner, which makes a statement all on its own. Pair it with nude eye shadow for a standout look or play up the intensity with a smokey eye. If you’re a newbie to winged eyeliner, be sure to grab the L’Oréal Paris Infallible Flash Cat Eye Waterproof Brush Tip Liquid Eyeliner, which features a removable wing stencil for perfectly precise wings every time.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #7: COLORFUL EYEBROWS

Don’t forget about your brows! They can get in on the drama, too. Instead of painting your lids in a colorful hue, give colorful eyebrows a try. Click through to our article on the topic to find out How to Experiment with Colorful Eyebrows.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP LOOK #8: GRAPHIC EYELINER

Our final dramatic eye makeup look? Graphic eyeliner! Long gone are the days of simply creating a straight line along your upper and lower lash lines. Rather, fun, geometric eyeliner is becoming the standard—albeit a pretty bold standard! Here are 8 Graphic Eyeliner Looks to Add to Your Eye Makeup Rotation.

lorealparisusa.com/beauty-magazine/makeup/eye-makeup/graphic-eyeliner-looks(opens in a new tab)

HOW TO PULL OFF DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP

Now that you have a few dramatic eye makeup options to choose from, you may be wondering how to pull off makeup with such intensity. Follow these four simple tips, and you’ll be rocking dramatic eye makeup with finesse.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP TIP #1: KEEP IT MATTE

If you want to rock a dramatic eye, it’s best to keep the rest of your makeup look on the simple side. Opting for matte finishes when it comes to your foundation, bronzer, face powder, blush, and other face makeup products will prevent your overall makeup look from appearing too over-the-top, while also allowing your dramatic eye makeup to be the center of attention. Here are a few of our favorite matte makeup products to try:

Foundation: For your foundation, try the L’Oréal Paris Infallible Pro-Matte Foundation. This foundation has a demi-matte finish, giving you the shine-free appearance you’re going for without looking too flat. The formula provides medium coverage, goes on smooth, and is lightweight. Apply it using the L’Oréal Paris Infallible Blend Artist Foundation Blender for an effortless, flawless-looking complexion.

Face powder: From the same line, the L’Oréal Paris Infallible Pro-Matte Powder creates a perfect matte finish that is long-lasting. The formula absorbs excess oil, reduces shine, and is lightweight.

Blush: Not only is it best to sport a matte finish when it comes to blush, but using a more subtle, neutral color for your flush will complement your dramatic eye rather than clash with it. Go for a soft peachy hue like the L’Oréal Paris Paradise Enchanted Fruit-Scented Blush Makeup in Bashful.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP TIP #2: DON’T SKIP PRIMER

If you’re striving to pull off a dramatic eye makeup look, you definitely do not want to skimp when it comes to using eye primer. A primer will prep your eyes for your intense look and keep it lasting all day long. The last thing you want to happen when wearing a bold eye is to have unintentionally smudged liner or messed up mascara!

To really seal the deal, after finishing your makeup, close your eyes and spritz your face with a setting spray in an “X” and “T” formation. The L’Oréal Paris Infallible Pro-Spray & Set Makeup Extender Setting Spray will give you a “just applied” makeup look all day (and night) long.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP TIP #3: USE A LASH PRIMER

Just as eye primer is super important when it comes to rocking a dramatic eye makeup look, so is lash primer. A lash primer will help prep your lashes for mascara while also adding volume and length to your lashes—more than you can achieve with mascara alone. Apply the L’Oréal Paris Voluminous Lash Primer or the L’Oréal Paris Voluminous Lash Paradise Mascara Primer/Base before coating your lashes in your favorite mascara.

DRAMATIC EYE MAKEUP TIP #4: SKIP THE LIP COLOR

While balancing a bold lip color and dramatic eye is totally possible, if you don’t do it right, it can prove to be detrimental to your overall look and leave you looking more like a clown than a makeup goddess. So, instead of facing the risk of crossing that fine line, skip the lip color when you want to pull off dramatic eye makeup. If you do want to wear a bit of color on your lips, opt for a neutral, natural-looking shade that won’t take away from your statement eye. Try any shade of the L’Oréal Paris Colour Riche Ultra Matte Highly Pigmented Nude Lipstick or opt for a tinted lip balm.

Just can’t get enough of the drama? Check out our article, How to Get Bold Bottom Lashes, for a dramatic lash look you can try, too.

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lipstick

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lipstick

cosmetic, any of several preparations (excluding soap) that are applied to the human body for beautifying, preserving, or altering the appearance or for cleansing, colouring, conditioning, or protecting the skin, hair, nails, lips, eyes, or teeth. See also makeup; perfume.

The earliest cosmetics known to archaeologists were in use in Egypt in the fourth millennium BC, as evidenced by the remains of artifacts probably used for eye makeup and for the application of scented unguents. By the start of the Christian era, cosmetics were in wide use in the Roman Empire. Kohl (a preparation based on lampblack or antimony) was used to darken the eyelashes and eyebrows and to outline the eyelids. Rouge was used to redden the cheeks, and various white powders were employed to simulate or heighten fairness of complexion. Bath oils were widely used, and various abrasives were employed as dentifrices. The perfumes then in use were based on floral and herbal scents held by natural resins as fixatives.

More From Britannica

 Why Did We Start Wearing Makeup?

Along with other cultural refinements, cosmetics disappeared from much of Europe with the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. A revival did not take place until the Middle Ages, when crusaders returning from the Middle East brought cosmetics and perfumes back from their travels. Cosmetics reappeared in Europe on a wide scale in the Renaissance, and Italy (15th–16th centuries) and France (17th century on) became the chief centres of their manufacture. At first makeup was used only by royalty, their courtiers, and the aristocracy, but by the 18th century cosmetics had come into use by nearly all social classes. During the conservative Victorian era of the 19th century, the open use of cosmetics was frowned upon by respectable society in the United States and Britain. French women continued to use makeup, however, and France pioneered in the scientific development and manufacture of cosmetics during that time. After World War I any lingering Anglo-American prejudices against makeup were discarded, and new products and techniques of manufacture, packaging, and advertising have made cosmetics available on an unprecedented scale.

Skin-care preparations

Understand how moisturizers work on the skin and also the types of moisturizers
Understand how moisturizers work on the skin and also the types of moisturizersSee all videos for this article

Preparations for the care of the skin form a major line of cosmetics. The basic step in facial care is cleansing, and soap and water is still one of the most effective means. Cleansing creams and lotions are useful, however, if heavy makeup is to be removed or if the skin is sensitive to soap. Their active ingredient is essentially oil, which acts as a solvent and is combined in an emulsion (a mixture of liquids in which one is suspended as droplets in another) with water. Cold cream, one of the oldest beauty aids, originally consisted of water beaten into mixtures of such natural fats as lard or almond oil, but modern preparations use mineral oil combined with an emulsifier that helps disperse the oil in water. Emollients (softening creams) and night creams are heavier cold creams that are formulated to encourage a massaging action in application; they often leave a thick film on the face overnight, thus minimizing water loss from the skin during that period.

Hand creams and lotions are used to prevent or reduce the dryness and roughness arising from exposure to household detergents, wind, sun, and dry atmospheres. Like facial creams, they act largely by replacing lost water and laying down an oil film to reduce subsequent moisture loss while the body’s natural processes repair the damage.

Foundations, face powder, and rouge

The classic foundation is vanishing cream, which is essentially an oil-in-water emulsion that contains about 15 percent stearic acid (a solid fatty acid), a small part of which is saponified (converted to a crystalline form) in order to provide the quality of sheen. Such creams leave no oily finish, though they provide an even, adherent base for face powder, which when dusted on top of a foundation provides a peach-skin appearance. Many ingredients are needed to provide the characteristics of a good face powder: talc helps it spread easily; chalk or kaolin gives it moisture-absorbing qualities; magnesium stearate helps it adhere; zinc oxide and titanium dioxide permit it to cover the skin more thoroughly; and various pigments add colour.

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Heightened colour can be provided with rouge, which is used for highlighting the cheekbones; the more modern version is the blusher, which is used to blend more colour in the face. Small kits of compressed face powder and rouge or blusher are commonly carried by women in their handbags.

Eye makeup

Eye makeup, which is usually considered indispensable to a complete maquillage (full makeup), includes mascara to emphasize the eyelashes; eye shadow for the eyelids, available in many shades; and eyebrow pencils and eyeliner to pick out the edges of the lids. Because eye cosmetics are used adjacent to a very sensitive area, innocuity of ingredients is essential.

Lipstick

Lipstick is an almost universal cosmetic since, together with the eyes, the mouth is a leading feature, and it can be attractively coloured and textured. Lipstick has a fatty base that is firm in itself and yet spreads easily when applied. The colour is usually provided by pigment—usually reds but also titanium dioxide, a white compound that gives brightness and cover. Because lipsticks are placed on a sensitive surface and ultimately ingested, they are made to the highest safety specifications.

Other cosmetics

Hair preparations include soapless shampoos (soap leaves a film on the hair) that are actually scented detergents; products that are intended to give gloss and body to the hair, such as resin-based sprays, brilliantines, and pomades, as well as alcohol-based lotions; and hair conditioners that are designed to treat damaged hair. Permanent-wave and hair-straightening preparations use a chemical, ammonium thioglycolate, to release hair from its natural set. Hair colorants use permanent or semipermanent dyes to add colour to dull or mousy-coloured hair, and hydrogen peroxide is used to bleach hair to a blond colour.

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