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Apple Inc.



Apple Inc.

Apple Inc., formerly Apple Computer, Inc., American manufacturer of personal computers, smartphones, tablet computers, computer peripherals, and computer software. It was the first successful personal computer company and the popularizer of the graphical user interface. Headquarters are located in Cupertino, California.

Garage start-up

first Apple computer
first Apple computer
Apple II
Apple II

Apple Inc. had its genesis in the lifelong dream of Stephen G. Wozniak to build his own computer—a dream that was made suddenly feasible with the arrival in 1975 of the first commercially successful microcomputer, the Altair 8800, which came as a kit and used the recently invented microprocessor chip. Encouraged by his friends at the Homebrew Computer Club, a San Francisco Bay area group centred around the Altair, Wozniak quickly came up with a plan for his own microcomputer. In 1976, when the Hewlett-Packard Company, where Wozniak was an engineering intern, expressed no interest in his design, Wozniak, then 26 years old, together with a former high-school classmate, 21-year-old Steve Jobs, moved production operations to the Jobs family garage. Jobs and Wozniak named their company Apple. For working capital, Jobs sold his Volkswagen minibus and Wozniak his programmable calculator. Their first model was simply a working circuit board, but at Jobs’s insistence the 1977 version was a stand-alone machine in a custom-molded plastic case, in contrast to the forbidding steel boxes of other early machines. This Apple II also offered a colour display and other features that made Wozniak’s creation the first microcomputer that appealed to the average person.

Commercial success

Though he was a brash business novice whose appearance still bore traces of his hippie past, Jobs understood that in order for the company to grow, it would require professional management and substantial funding. He convinced Regis McKenna, a well-known public relations specialist for the semiconductor industry, to represent the company; he also secured an investment from Michael Markkula, a wealthy veteran of the Intel Corporation who became Apple’s largest shareholder and an influential member of Apple’s board of directors. The company became an instant success, particularly after Wozniak invented a disk controller that allowed the addition of a low-cost floppy disk drive that made information storage and retrieval fast and reliable. With room to store and manipulate data, the Apple II became the computer of choice for legions of amateur programmers. Most notably, in 1979 two Bostonians—Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston—introduced the first personal computer spreadsheet, VisiCalc, creating what would later be known as a “killer app” (application): a software program so useful that it propels hardware sales.

While VisiCalc opened up the small-business and consumer market for the Apple II, another important early market was primary educational institutions. By a combination of aggressive discounts and donations (and an absence of any early competition), Apple established a commanding presence among educational institutions, contributing to its platform’s dominance of primary-school software well into the 1990s.

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Competition from IBM

Apple’s profits and size grew at a historic rate: by 1980 the company netted over $100 million and had more than 1,000 employees. Its public offering in December was the biggest since 1956, when the Ford Motor Company had gone public. (Indeed, by the end of 1980, Apple’s valuation of nearly $2 billion was greater than Ford’s.) However, Apple would soon face competition from the computer industry’s leading player, International Business Machines Corporation. IBM had waited for the personal computer market to grow before introducing its own line of personal computers, the IBM PC, in 1981. IBM broke with its tradition of using only proprietary hardware components and software and built a machine from readily available components, including the Intel microprocessor, and used DOS (disk operating system) from the Microsoft Corporation. Because other manufacturers could use the same hardware components that IBM used, as well as license DOS from Microsoft, new software developers could count on a wide IBM PC-compatible market for their software. Soon the new system had its own killer app: the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet, which won an instant constituency in the business community—a market that the Apple II had failed to penetrate.

Macintosh and the first affordable GUI

Apple's Lisa computer
Apple’s Lisa computer

Apple had its own plan to regain leadership: a sophisticated new generation of computers that would be dramatically easier to use. In 1979 Jobs had led a team of engineers to see the innovations created at the Xerox Corporation’s Palo Alto (California) Research Center (PARC). There they were shown the first functional graphical user interface (GUI), featuring on-screen windows, a pointing device known as a mouse, and the use of icons, or pictures, to replace the awkward protocols required by all other computers. Apple immediately incorporated these ideas into two new computers: Lisa, released in 1983, and the lower-cost Macintosh, released in 1984. Jobs himself took over the latter project, insisting that the computer should be not merely great but “insanely great.” The result was a revelation—perfectly in tune with the unconventional, science-fiction-esque television commercial that introduced the Macintosh during the broadcast of the 1984 Super Bowl—a $2,500 computer unlike any that preceded it.

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Desktop publishing revolution

Despite an ecstatic reaction from the media, the Macintosh initially sold below Apple’s expectations. Critics noted that the Mac, as it came to be known, had insufficient memory and storage and lacked standard amenities such as cursor keys and a colour display. (Many skeptics also doubted that adults would ever want to use a machine that relied on the GUI, condemning it as “toylike” and wasteful of computational resources.) In the wake of the poor sales performance, Jobs was ousted from the company in September 1985 by its chief executive officer (CEO), John Sculley. (Wozniak had left Apple in February 1985 to become a teacher.) Under Sculley, Apple steadily improved the machine. However, what saved the Mac in those early years was Apple’s 1985 introduction of an affordable laser printer along with Aldus Corporation’s PageMaker, the Mac’s first killer app. Together these two innovations launched the desktop publishing revolution. Suddenly, small businesses and print shops could produce professional-looking brochures, pamphlets, and letters without having to resort to expensive lithographic processes. The graphic arts and publishing industries quickly became the Mac’s single most important market.

Another innovation was a software database called HyperCard, which Apple included free with every Macintosh starting in 1987. Using a technique called hyperlinking, this program, written by Bill Atkinson, was employed by many teachers to organize multimedia elements for classroom presentations—an idea that anticipated the HTML (hypertext markup language) underpinnings of the World Wide Web.

Apple litigates while PCs innovate

This was a golden age for Apple; the company’s revenues approached $10 billion, and it sold more than a million computers a year. Still, Apple’s profits obscured the fact that its share of the market was falling, despite the technological superiority of its products. The Mac’s incompatibility with Apple II software, a problem initially ignored, slowed educational sales and compelled the retention of the outmoded Apple II line through 1993. Consumer sales suffered as the company discouraged game development out of fear that the Mac would not be taken seriously in the business community. Moreover, Microsoft, after an unsuccessful attempt to secure an agreement to market the Mac OS on the Intel processor, introduced Windows, its own graphical operating system. Apple litigated for years, in vain, to stop Microsoft from copying the “look and feel” of its operating system, though the Mac OS itself drew upon the PARC GUI. Meanwhile, as successive versions of Windows were improved and as competition among multiple PC manufacturers led to greater innovation and lower prices, fewer people were willing to pay the premiums that Apple had been able to command owing to its reputation for quality.

Apple–IBM rapprochement

In a rather surprising development, Apple and IBM announced an alliance in 1991. In addition to signing a technology agreement with Motorola, Inc., to develop a next-generation RISC (reduced-instruction-set computing) chip, known as the PowerPC, Apple and IBM created two new software companies, Taligent, Inc., and Kaleida Labs, Inc., for the development of operating system software. Taligent was expected to enable versions of both the Mac OS and the IBM OS/2 to run on a new computer hardware standard, the common hardware reference platform (CHRP), and Kaleida Labs was to develop multimedia software. However, as Apple and IBM began to quarrel over CHRP’s engineering specifications and as costs mounted to approximately $400 million for Taligent and $200 million for Kaleida Labs, Apple pulled out with little to show for its investment.

Newton and Claris

Sculley also promised more than Apple could deliver with Newton, a personal digital assistant (PDA) that suffered from poor handwriting recognition and that diverted company engineering and financial resources. In addition, the company vacillated over Claris Corporation, its software division, first reorganizing it as an independent company and then reabsorbing it when it began shifting more resources to Windows software.

Apple continues to flounder

Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler in 1993. Spindler’s most notable achievements as CEO were the successful migration of the Mac OS to the PowerPC microprocessor and the initiation of a shift away from Apple’s proprietary standards. Nevertheless, Apple struggled with marketing projections, accumulating large unsalable inventories of some models while simultaneously being unable to meet a billion dollars in orders for other models. Combined with drastic quality control problems, notably a defective line of monitors and some highly publicized combustible portable computers, these failings brought an end to Spindler’s reign in early 1996 with the appointment of Gilbert F. Amelio.

The return of Jobs: iMac, iPod, iTunes, iPhone, and iPad

Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs

Apple cut operating costs and reestablished quality controls, but by that time only a small percentage of new computer buyers were choosing Macs over machines running Windows, and Apple’s financial situation was dire. In December 1996, in order to secure a replacement for the Mac’s aging operating system following the collapse of CHRP and the company’s protracted inability to produce one internally, Apple purchased NeXT Software, Inc., the company formed by Jobs after his 1985 departure. Jobs himself was retained as an advisor to the CEO, but he quickly became disenchanted and sold all but one share of the Apple stock he had received in the NeXT sale. When Apple failed to become profitable under Amelio and its worldwide market share fell to roughly 3 percent, the board of directors, in mid-1997, recruited a surprising temporary replacement: Jobs, for the first time the undisputed leader of the company he cofounded.

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Unveiling the World of Football




Unveiling the World of Football

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Explore the exciting world of football, from its history and evolution to the rules of the game. Discover the passion, camaraderie, and skill that make football the world’s most beloved sport.


Barcelona and Argentina forward Lionel Messi poses with the official match ball for the 2018 World Cup football tournament, named “Telstar 18”, during its unveiling ceremony in Moscow on November 9, 2017. / AFP PHOTO / Mladen ANTONOV

Football, often referred to as “the beautiful game,” is a global phenomenon that unites people from diverse backgrounds in a shared love for sport. In this comprehensive article, we will delve deep into the world of football, exploring its history, rules, strategies, and cultural significance. Whether you’re a seasoned fan or a curious newcomer, join us on this journey through the exciting world of football.

The Essence of Football

Football is more than just a sport; it’s a way of life for millions around the globe. This captivating game has a rich history, filled with memorable moments, legendary players, and remarkable achievements. Let’s kick off our exploration by understanding the essence of football.

The Origin of Football

Football’s origins can be traced back centuries, with various cultures playing their versions of the game. However, the modern form of football, as we know it today, was codified in England during the 19th century. The Football Association, founded in 1863, established the rules that laid the foundation for the sport worldwide.

The Global Phenomenon

Football has transcended borders and cultures, becoming a truly global phenomenon. It is estimated that over half of the world’s population identifies as football fans. The sport’s universal appeal can be attributed to its simplicity—two teams, one ball, and a goal on each end—and the passion it ignites in fans worldwide.

Football’s Cultural Impact

Beyond the field, football has a profound cultural impact. It influences fashion, music, art, and even politics. The World Cup, for instance, is not just a sporting event but a global celebration that fosters unity and brings nations together.

The Rules of the Game

To truly appreciate football, one must grasp the rules that govern it. Let’s dive into the intricacies of this beautiful game.

The Objective

The primary goal of football is simple: to score more goals than the opposing team. Goals are scored by getting the ball into the opponent’s net while adhering to certain rules.

Team Composition

A football team typically consists of 11 players, including a goalkeeper. The players are divided into positions, such as forwards, midfielders, defenders, and the goalkeeper, each with specific roles and responsibilities.

Playing Field

A standard football field is rectangular, with specific dimensions. The pitch is marked with lines, including the center circle, penalty area, and goal area. The game is played within these boundaries.


Goals are the lifeblood of football. A goal is scored when the entire ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts and beneath the crossbar. Each goal is worth one point.

Duration of the Game

A football match is typically divided into two halves, each lasting 45 minutes, with a 15-minute halftime interval. In some cases, extra time and penalty shootouts may be used to determine a winner in knockout competitions.

The Offside Rule

The offside rule is a crucial aspect of football. A player is considered offside if they are nearer to the opponent’s goal line than both the ball and the second-to-last defender when the ball is played to them.

Strategies and Tactics

Football is not just about athleticism; it’s a game of strategy and tactics. Let’s explore the various strategies that teams employ to succeed on the pitch.


Football teams use specific formations to organize their players on the field. Common formations include 4-4-2, 4-3-3, and 3-5-2, each with its own strengths and weaknesses.

Possession and Passing

Maintaining possession of the ball is crucial in football. Teams use passing and ball control to dictate the tempo of the game and create scoring opportunities.

Defense and Counterattack

A solid defense is the foundation of a successful team. Teams often employ tactics like pressing, zonal marking, and counterattacking to gain an advantage.

Set Pieces

Set pieces, such as corners and free-kicks, provide scoring opportunities. Teams use rehearsed routines to maximize their effectiveness during these situations.

Football’s Impact on Society

Football goes beyond the confines of the stadium; it shapes societies and inspires generations. Let’s explore the broader impact of this beloved sport.

Social Inclusion

Football is a unifying force that brings people from diverse backgrounds together. It promotes social inclusion, fostering a sense of belonging and camaraderie among fans.

Economic Impact

The football industry generates significant revenue, from ticket sales and merchandise to television rights and sponsorships. It also creates jobs and stimulates local economies.

Health and Fitness

Participating in football promotes physical fitness and a healthy lifestyle. It encourages regular exercise and teamwork, benefiting both individuals and communities.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

  1. What is the history of football? Football has ancient origins but was codified in England in the 19th century, leading to the modern version of the game we know today.
  2. How many players are there on a football team? A standard football team consists of 11 players, including one goalkeeper.
  3. What is the offside rule in football? The offside rule states that a player is offside if they are nearer to the opponent’s goal line than both the ball and the second-to-last defender when the ball is played to them.
  4. How long does a football match last? A typical football match is divided into two halves of 45 minutes each, with a 15-minute halftime interval.
  5. What are some famous football formations? Common football formations include 4-4-2, 4-3-3, and 3-5-2, each with its own tactical advantages.
  6. What is the economic impact of football? Football generates substantial revenue through ticket sales, sponsorships, and merchandise, contributing to the global economy.


Football is more than just a sport; it’s a global phenomenon that transcends borders, cultures, and generations. From its humble origins in England to its far-reaching impact on society, football continues to inspire and unite people worldwide. Whether you’re cheering for your favorite team in a stadium or playing a pickup game with friends, the spirit of football is a source of joy, passion, and camaraderie. So, lace up your boots and join the millions who celebrate the beautiful game.

The Global Football Community

Football boasts an extensive global community of players, fans, and enthusiasts. It’s a sport that transcends linguistic, cultural, and geographical boundaries, bringing people together in celebration of their shared passion.

International Competitions

One of the most significant events in the football calendar is the FIFA World Cup. Held every four years, it features teams from around the world competing for the coveted trophy. The World Cup is more than a sporting spectacle; it’s a global celebration that unites nations and showcases the best football talent on the planet.

Club Football

In addition to international competitions, club football plays a central role in the sport. Clubs like FC Barcelona, Manchester United, and Real Madrid have amassed legions of fans worldwide. These clubs compete in various leagues, such as the English Premier League, La Liga, and Serie A, offering year-round football excitement.

Grassroots Football

Football’s appeal extends to the grassroots level, where children and adults of all ages enjoy the sport. Local clubs, school teams, and recreational leagues provide opportunities for people to experience the thrill of playing football and forging lifelong friendships.

Evolution of the Game

Football has evolved over the years, adapting to changing times and preferences. Let’s take a look at how the sport has grown and transformed.

Technological Advancements

Technology has had a significant impact on football. Innovations like goal-line technology and video assistant referees (VAR) have enhanced the accuracy of decision-making during matches, ensuring fair play and reducing controversies.

Women’s Football

Women’s football has gained prominence, with more opportunities and recognition for female players. The FIFA Women’s World Cup has become a global showcase for women’s talent, inspiring the next generation of female footballers.

Football in the Digital Age

The digital age has brought football closer to fans than ever before. Social media platforms, streaming services, and online communities allow fans to connect, share their passion, and stay updated on the latest news and matches.

The Beauty of Football

What makes football truly beautiful is the artistry and skill displayed by players on the field. From breathtaking goals to dazzling dribbles, football is a spectacle of talent and athleticism.

Iconic Players

Football has produced iconic players who have left an indelible mark on the sport. Legends like Pelé, Diego Maradona, Lionel Messi, and Cristiano Ronaldo have mesmerized fans with their extraordinary abilities.

Memorable Moments

The history of football is replete with memorable moments that have etched themselves into the collective memory of fans. Whether it’s a last-minute goal in a championship match or a stunning save by a goalkeeper, these moments define the sport.

Football’s Role in Education

Football is not only about entertainment and competition; it also plays a vital role in education. It teaches valuable life lessons and skills.

Teamwork and Collaboration

Playing football fosters teamwork and collaboration. Players must communicate, strategize, and work together to achieve their goals—a skill that translates into success in various aspects of life.

Discipline and Dedication

To excel in football, one must be disciplined and dedicated. Regular training, fitness routines, and commitment to improvement are essential traits that players develop.

Sportsmanship and Fair Play

Football promotes sportsmanship and fair play. Players are expected to adhere to rules, respect opponents, and accept both victories and defeats gracefully.

Football for All

Inclusivity is a fundamental aspect of football. The sport welcomes participants of all ages, genders, and abilities, ensuring that everyone has the opportunity to enjoy its benefits.

Youth Development

Youth development programs in football provide a structured path for aspiring players to hone their skills and pursue a professional career.

Adaptive Football

Adaptive football programs cater to individuals with disabilities, allowing them to experience the joy of the game and compete at their own pace.

Social Impact

Football is often used as a tool for social change and development. Initiatives like Football for Peace and grassroots projects in underserved communities use the sport as a vehicle for positive transformation.


Football, with its rich history, universal appeal, and profound impact, continues to be the world’s most beloved sport. Whether you’re a player, a fan, or simply someone curious about the game, there’s always something new and exciting to discover in the world of football. So, embrace the passion, celebrate the skill, and join the global community in cherishing the beautiful game of football.

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Cool mountain breeze, fresh pine scent and an abundance of greens only at Alpine Villas Read




Cool mountain breeze, fresh pine scent and an abundance of greens only at Alpine Villas Read more: Follow us: @inquirerdotnet on Twitter | inquirerdotnet on Facebook

Breathing in that crisp, fresh mountain air can do wonders for your health in more ways you can imagine.

Scores of studies would readily show that fresh air can help clear your lungs, lower blood pressure and heart rate, give you more energy and mental focus, boost your immune system, uplift your mood, and surprisingly, even aid in your digestion.

Nestled in nature, Alpine Villas gives residents a rare living experience right in the heart of Crosswinds in Tagaytay.

Admittedly though, it’s one of the few simple pleasures in life that is now hard to come by, especially when you live in a highly dense urban center. While others would regularly go out of town and immerse themselves in nature retreats, some went as far as finding homes and communities where there is an abundance of recreational open spaces, lush parks and gardens in a pristine environment where fresh cool breeze is a natural amenity that can be readily enjoyed.

Idyllic sanctuary

Head south of the metro to find this beautiful nature-filled oasis that will let you enjoy an idyllic sanctuary amid sophisticated dwellings, modern conveniences and natural amenities.

The 100 hectare Crosswinds—a Swiss-inspired luxury community by Brittany Corp., the luxury residential arm of the country’s largest homebuilder Vista Land & Lifescapes Inc.—presents an ideal idyllic sanctuary for a home.

Sitting gracefully atop the lush sloping terrains in this peaceful side of Tagaytay, Crosswinds immerses you deep into nature with its themed neighborhoods spaced out evenly across the entire expanse, gorgeous calming views that will relax you, the cool clime, and some 35,000 towering pine trees comprising the forests that give off that refreshing pine scent you would rarely find in this country.

Set amid 35,000 towering pine trees, Alpine Villas is a cluster of mid-rise residential towers designed to inspire you to slow down, practice mindfulness, and reconnect with nature.

Crosswinds impeccably pairs this upscale rusticity with its array of thoughtfully curated dining concepts, hotels and other modern conveniences that will leave you feeling safe and content in your own private nature sanctuary.

Stomping ground

You can still find your own sweet spot in this premier Swiss oasis as the 2.8-hectare Alpine Villas offers a charming enclave where you can revel in nature’s splendor. Its four mid-rise towers, being built in the style of Swiss chalets, beckon to those looking for that much needed balance between laidback countryside living and a modern upscale lifestyle.

Inspired by the concept of forest bathing, Alpine Villas provides a stomping ground that places utmost importance on the environment as well as the health and well-being of its future residents.

It is being built on the principles of sustainable design, which ensures that you will reap the many benefits of living amid nature. After all, scores of studies have already demonstrated how nature nurtures, heals and restores.

At present, Brittany offers the towers Bernese, Blanc, Brienz and Biel, which are set to rise 582 meters above sea level—an exquisite vantage point that allows you to soak in those charming views from the comfort of your home.

With some 30 percent of this development dedicated to green open spaces, future residents will be inspired to reflect, slow down, practice mindfulness and reconnect with nature—a pursuit that has become even more meaningful since the pandemic started two years ago. It also helps that this vertical village is being constructed using natural and sustainable materials such as wood, thus further incorporating nature into these individual residences.

Alpine Villas

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